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The exception which did not follow this trend was, similarly to the autoclave cured panels, the resistance bonded GLARE 3 panel with prepreg layers adjacent to the mesh RB2 panel. It is assumed that the epoxy volume content was not sufficient to impregnate the heater mesh properly. Therefore, the crack initiated at the epoxy-heater mesh interface for RB2 specimens Figure 10 c.

Finally, the resistance curing method produced panels of distinctively lower quality with an increased presence of voids in all prepreg layers including the ones adjacent to the heater mesh. This led to a decrease in the ILSS values and the onset of failure in the outer prepreg layers. As voids disrupt the homogeneity of the material and act as crack initiators, a higher void content consequently increases the chance of failure at lower stress values and thus, leads to a decrease of the static strength.

Using a mesh stripe instead of a full surface mesh for resistance bonding of GLARE panels severely affects the temperature distribution see Figure 7. Thus, the aim of this study was to monitor the in-plane temperature distribution during resistance bonding to investigate its effect on the degree of cure and ILSS values at different positions from the mesh Figure 5. This can provide flexibility in the case where a more complex mesh geometry might be required depending on the parts to be resistance bonded.

Three manufacturing techniques for GLARE panels were investigated and compared: full autoclave curing, resistance bonding of two autoclave-cured panels and complete out-of-autoclave resistance curing. The effect of the heater element was investigated as a first step for autoclave cured panels. No major differences in the static behaviour and manufacturing quality were found between panels with and without an embedded heater mesh. Resistance cured samples, however, do not show sufficient manufacturing quality.

In all cases, the importance of a proper mesh impregnation was noted. The best quality was obtained with pure epoxy layers at the mesh interface, while the use of only one prepreg layer on each side of the mesh was more likely to promote crack initiation. As a first step toward a flexible heater mesh geometry, two GLARE 5 panels were resistance bonded using a Further investigation into customisable mesh dimensions for flexible on-site repairs could be a focus of future research.

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The promising results obtained for the resistance bonded panels with an embedded mesh across the full surface demonstrated the capability to accomplish comparable quality to autoclave manufacturing with minimal equipment vacuum bag, power supply and thermocouples. Hence, this flexible technique could eliminate a second costly autoclave cycle in the case where, for instance, doublers or stringers need to be bonded to GLARE panels. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal of Composite Materials. J Compos Mater. Published online Aug Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer.

Email: ln. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4. Keywords: Out-of-autoclave, resistance heating, fibre metal laminates. Introduction Fibre metal laminates FMLs were developed to reduce the weight and increase the damage tolerance of metallic lightweight structures. Table 1. Open in a separate window. Figure 1.

Figure 2. Figure 3. Table 2.

Glare - History of the Development of a New Aircraft Material | Ad Vlot | Springer

Table 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Process parameters Full surface mesh The temperature, electrical voltage and current curves were recorded during the out-of-autoclave manufacturing of GLARE panels using a full surface mesh. Figure 6. Mesh stripe Figure 7 shows the temperature, electrical voltage and current curves measured during resistance bonding of a GLARE 5 panel using a mesh stripe. Figure 7. Experimental methods In order to evaluate the performance of the out-of-autoclave manufacturing methods proposed in this work, ILSS tests were performed.

Figure 8. Figure 9. Figure Table 4. Table 5. Conclusions Three manufacturing techniques for GLARE panels were investigated and compared: full autoclave curing, resistance bonding of two autoclave-cured panels and complete out-of-autoclave resistance curing. References 1. Vogelesang LB, Vlot A. Development of fibre metal laminates for advanced aerospace structures.

J Mater Process Technol ; : 1—5.


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Pettit R. Vlot A and Gunnink JW. Fibre metal laminates — an introduction. Vlot A. Glare — history of the development of a new aircraft material. Fatigue and damage tolerance issues of Glare in aircraft structures. Int J Fatigue ; 28 : — Damage characterisation of fibre metal laminates under interlaminar shear load. Compos A ; 40 : — Experimental and numerical investigation of metal type and thickness effects on the impact resistance of fiber metal laminates. Appl Compos Mater ; 19 : — Compos Struct ; 92 : 18— Impact loading on fibre metal laminates.

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Glare fibre Project at Cardiff University

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Resistance welding of thermoplastic composites — Process and performance. Characterisation of a metal mesh heating element for closed-loop resistance welding of thermoplastic composites. J Thermoplast Compos Mater ; 28 : 46— Internal resistance heating for homogeneous curing of adhesively bonded repairs.

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